Cellular reaction to injury MCQs (for FCPS Part 1)

cellular response to injury mcqs fcps part 1

Cellular reaction to injury MCQs (for FCPS Part 1)

 

These MCQs are taken from the book “FCPS Pretest Series – Pathology”. To purchase the book, click here.

 

fcps pretest series pathology.

1. Replacement of cells by another type of normal cells is called

A. Metaplasia

B. Dysplasia

C. Hyperplasia

D. Anaplasia

.

Ans. A. Metaplasia is defined as “replacement of one normal tissue by another type of normal tissue”.

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2. What is not correct about  metaplasia:

A. Irreversible

B. Bronchial epithelium

C. Gastroesophageal junction

D. Cervical junction

.

Ans. A. Though metaplasia can progress to dysplasia and cancer (E.g, barett’s esophagus, which is conversion of normal squamous epithelium of esophagus to columnar due to GERD, can progress to adenocarcinoma of esophagus ), metaplasia is reversible if the stimulant is removed.

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Dysplasia is also reversible, but neoplasia is irreversible (this is an important difference between dysplasia and neoplasia).

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3. Metaplasia does not occur in:

A. Brain.

B. Vitamin A deficiency.

C. Esophagus

D. Vagina

.

Ans. A

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4. Epithelium of a smoker will show

A. Increase ciliated epithelium

B. Mixture of stratified squamous and pseudostratified cells

C. Decrease goblet cells

.

Ans. B

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5. Difference between Adenoma & Hyperplasia is

A. Increase in size of cell

B. Increase in No. Of cells

C. Capsule

D. Increase in wt. Of cells

.

Ans. C. Benign tumors (E.g, adenoma) are surrounded by capsule; hyperplasia isn’t.

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6. Difference between hyperplasia and benign tumor is

A. Hyperplasia invades surrounding tissues

B. Benign tumor metastasize to tissues

C. Benign tumor shows aggressive growth

D. Hyperplasia shows pleomorphisim

E. Benign tumor is surrounded by capsule

.

Ans. E

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7. Most common cause of metaplasia is

A. Ultrasonography

B. Chronic irritation

C. Infections

D. Radiations

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Ans. B. Most common cause of metaplasia is chronic irritation (e.g; smoking irritates respiratory airways, resulting in squamous metaplasia of trachea/bronchi)

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8. What is the differentiating point of hyperplasia from hypertrophy

A. Increase in size of cell

B. Increase in size and no of cells

C. Is reversible

D. Is premalignant

E. Involve viscera only

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Ans. B. Hyperplasia is increase in number of the cells; hypertrophy is increase in size of the cells.

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9. Hypertrophy indicates

A. Increase in size of cell

B. Increase in no. Of cell

C. Decrease in no. Of cell

D. Decrease in size of cell

.

Ans. A

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10. Which of the following is inappropriate

A. Hyperplasia is increase in number of cell

B. Hypertophy is increase in size

C. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy can not occur in the same tissue

.

Ans. C. In some cases, hypertrophy and hyperplasia can occur together. For example; during pregnancy, uterine enlargement is caused by both hypertrophy and hyperplasia of smooth muscle cells in the uterus.

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11. Squamous cell in cervix is an example of

A. Metaplasia

B. Anaplasia

C. Dysplasia

D. Hamartoma

.

Ans. A

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Examples and causes of metaplasia

Type of tissue involved

Type of metaplasia

Examples and causes

Epithelium

Squamous metaplasia

(1) Replacement of columnar epithelium at squamocolumnar junction of cervix.

.

(2) Chronic irritation caused by smoking causes squamous metaplasia of trachea/bronchi

.

(3) Vitamin A deficiency causes squamous metapasia of conjunctiva of the eye. (keratomalacia).

Mesenchyme (connective tissue)

Osseous metaplasia

Osseous metaplasia is formation of new bone at sites of tissue injury.

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12. Starvation is associated with a reduction in size of all except

A. Fat deposits

B. Heart

C. CNS

D. Liver

.

Ans. C

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13. Metaplasia is caused by

A. Vitamin d deficiency

B. Chronic irritation

C. Chronic inflammation

D. Aging

.

Ans. B

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14. Metaplasia of surface epithelium is caused by

A. Increased demand

B. Chronic irritation

C. Mutations

D. UV radiations

.

Ans. B

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15. Long term use of intra uterine device cause conversion of normal simple columnar epithelium of endocervix to strateified squamous epithelium.This is an example of

A. Anaplasia

B. Dysplasia

C. Metaplasia

D. Desmoplasia

E. Aplasia

.

Ans. C

.

16. Most commonly hypertrophy occurs in

A. Breast

B. Ovaries

C. Skeletal muscles

D. Testis

E. Thyroid

.

Ans. C. NOTE: hypertrophy occur more commonly in skeletal muscles [option C] than in breasts [option A].

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17. True about hyperplasia

A. Cells with rapid mitosis

B. Occurs in old age

C. Usually irreversible

D. Cells with abnormal mitoses

.

Ans. A. Hyperplasia is increase in number of cells which occurs via increase in normal process of mitosis.

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18. Squamous metaplasia occurs typically in:

A. Bronchi of chronic smokers

B. Skin exposed to sunlight

C. Callus

D. Barrett esophagus

E. Chronic gastritis

.

Ans. A

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19. Squamous metaplasia of cigarette smokers is typically seen in the epithelium lining the:

A. Oral cavity

B. Epiglottis

C. Bronchi

D. Alveoli

E. Pleural surfaces

.

Ans. C. Smoking causes metaplasia most commonly in bronchi.

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20. Most common cause of permanent atrophy

A. Denervation

B. Hard plaster of paris

C. Loss of arterial supply

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Ans. A. Loss of nerve supply is called denervation; it results in permanent atrophy.

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21. Which of the following do not undergo metaplasia

A. Gall bladder duct

B. Bronchial epithelium

C. Colonic epithelium

D. Brain

.

Ans. D

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REVERSIBLE CELL INJURY

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EARLY STAGE

Hypoxiafirst affects the mitochondria, with resultant ↓ATP production; there are three important consequences of ↓ATP production: ↓Na-K pump activity, ↓Ca pump activity, and stimulation of phosphofructokinase activity

.

Effects of hypoxia-induced ↓ATP synthesis

Further consequences

↓Na-K pump activity

↓Na-K pump activity → ↑intracellular Na+ and water, and ↓intracellular K; this has two effects:

.

(1) Cellular swelling (hallmark of reversible cell injury): It results in loss of microvilli + Formation of cell blebs

(2) Swelling of organelles:

  • Mitochondrial swelling; it progresses from reversible to irreversible swelling.
  • RER swelling → Disaggregation of ribosomes from RER → ↓Proteins synthesis

↓Ca-Pump activity

↑Intracellular Ca+2

↑Phosphofructokinase activity

↑Phosphofructokinase activity → ↑Glycolysis (↑usage of glucose) → ↓Cytoplasmic glycogen + ↑Lactate formation → ↓Intracellular Ph

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LATE STAGE

.

Hypoxic cell injury eventually results in:

.

  1. Cell membrane damage
  2. Myelin figures; worl like structures, probably originating from damaged membrane.

    .

    22. Which one of the following is most likely feature of reversible injury

    A. Cell swelling

    B. Karyorhexis

    C. Decreased glycogen

    D. Myelin figures

.

Ans. A

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23. Which of the following is a sign of reversible damage,:

A. Decrease glycogen

B. Increase PH

C. Influx of ca+2

D. Loss of Na+

.

Ans. A

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24. Feature not associated with irreversible cell injury is:

A. Mylein figures

B. Karyolysis,

C. Karyorrehxis

D. Mitochondrial shrinkage

.

Ans. D

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IRREVERSIBLE CELL INJURY

.

The changes in irreversible cell injury include:

.

  1. Features of reversible cell injury (E.g, cell blebs, mitochondrial swelling, RER swelling and loss of ribosomes, ↓intracellular Ph, and myelin figures) persist.

    .

  2. Irrervesible severe cell membrane damage; this is the hallmark of irreversible cell injury and indicates the point of no return. It results in massive calcium influx, extensive calcification of mitochondria, and cell death.

    .

  3. MITOCHONDRIAL DYSFUNCTION: It produces:

               A. Mitochondrial swelling

               B. Flocculent (loose, wool like) densities in mitochondria

               C. ↓ATP synthesis

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        4. Rupture of lysosomes causes release of lysosomal enzymes into the cytosol and activation of                   acid hydrolases followed by autolysis.

.        5. Nuclear changes can include:

.

  1. PYKNOSIS (pink dot): Nucleus (chromatin) shrinks.
  2. KARYORRHEXIS: Nucleus (chromatin) breaks into pieces.
  3. KARYOLYSIS: Nuclear (chromatin) pieces break down into building blocks (fading of chromatin material)
  4. Disappearance of stainable nuclei; this is the hallmark of necrosis and represents cell death.

    .

    25. Which cation is found in extremely high concentrations in cell that have undergone coagulative necrosis:

    A. Potassium

    B. Calcium

    C. Iron

    D. Cobalt

    E. Copper

.

Ans. B

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26. All of the following are signs of necrosis except

A. Lipofuscin

B. Pyknosis

C. Karyolysis

D. Karyorrhexis

E. Cell membrane rupture

.

Ans. A

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27. Which finding on electron microscopy indicates irreversible cell injury

A. Dilatation of endoplasmic reticulum

B. Dissociation of ribosomes from rough endoplasmic reticulum

C. Flocculent densities in mitochondria

D. Mylein figures

.

Ans. C

.

28. Irreversible injury starts with

A. Release of lysosomal enzymes.

B. Release of paroxysomal enzymes

C. Release of oxidases

.

Ans. A

.

29. In our country, the most common cause of cell inujury is

A. Alcohol

B. Hypoxia

C. Lschemia

D. Ionizing radiation

E. Malnutrition

.

Ans. C

.

30. The first step inhibited by hypoxic injury is;

A. Oxidative phosphorylation

B. Glycogenesis

C. Detachment of ribosomes fromrer

D. Cell shrinkage

.

Ans. A. Hypoxic cell injury first affects mitochondria, with resultant oxidative phosphorylation and ↓ATP synthesis.

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31. Karyolysis leads to

A. Decreased eosinophilia

B. Increased eosinophilia

C. Decreased basophilia

D. Increased basophilia

.

Ans. C

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HISTOLOGICAL STAINS

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WHAT KINDS OF HISTOLOGICAL STAINS ARE THERE?

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Most cells are colourless and transparent, and therefore histological sections have to be stained in some way to make the cells visible. The techniques used can either be non-specific, staining most of the cells in much the same way, or specific, selectively staining particular chemical groupings or molecules within cells or tissues. Staining usually works by using a dye, that stains some of the cells components a bright colour, together with a counterstain that stains the rest of the cell a different colour.

.

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BASOPHILIC AND ACIDOPHILIC STAINING

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ACIDIC DYES:Acidic dyes react with cationic or basic components in cells. Proteins and other components in the cytoplasm are basic, and will bind to acidic dyes. Another way of saying this is that cytoplasmic proteins are acidophilic (acid liking – i.E. Bind to acidic dyes).

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BASIC DYES:Basic dyes react with anionic or acidic components in cells. Nucleic acids (DNA) are acidic, and therefore bind to basic dyes. Another way of saying this is that nucleic acids are basophilic (basic liking).

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H&E STAINING

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The most commonly used staining system is called H&E (Haemotoxylin and Eosin). H&E contains the two dyes haemotoxylin and eosin.

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EOSIN: Eosin is an acidic dye: it is negatively charged (general formula for acidic dyes is: Na + dye-). It stains basic (or acidophilic) structures red or pink. This is also sometimes termed ‘eosinophilic‘.

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HAEMATOXYLIN: Haematoxylin is a basic dye (general formula for basic dyes is: dye + Cl-). It is used to stain acidic (or basophilic) structures a purplish blue. This means that the nucleus (DNA), and parts of the cytoplasm that contain RNA stain up in one colour (purple), and the rest of the cytoplasm stains up a different colour (pink).

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WHAT STRUCTURES ARE STAINED PURPLE (BASOPHILIC)?

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DNA (heterochromatin and the nucleolus) in the nucleus, and RNA in ribosomes and in the rough endoplasmic reticulum are both acidic, and so haemotoxylin binds to them and stains them purple.

.

WHAT STRUCTURES ARE STAINED PINK (EOSINOPHILIC OR ACIDOPHILIC)?

.

Most proteins in the cytoplasm are basic, and so eosin binds to these proteins and stains them pink. This includes cytoplasmic filaments in muscle cells, intracellular membranes, and extracellular fibres.

.

SUMMARY

.

  • BASOPHILIA: DNA/nucleic acids (in nucleus) and RNA (in ribosomes + RER) are acidic, so they bind with basic dyes (hematoxylin) to stain purple.

    .

  • ACIDOPHILIA (EIOSINOPHILIA): Proteins are basic, so they bind with acidic dyes (eosin) to stain pink.

    .

    EXPLANATION OF MCQ:

    .

  • Pyknosis involves chromatin (DNA) shrinking, making it more concentrated, thus resulting in ↑basophilia.
  • Karyolysis involves fading of chromatin material (DNA), and thus causes ↓basophilia.

    .

    32. Basophilia to the cell is imparted by

    A. Rough Endoplasmic reticulum

    B. Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum

.

Ans. A

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33. All are features of irreversible cell Injury except

A. Karyolysis

B. Karyorhexis

C. Autolysis

D. Shrinkage of mitochondria

E. Appearance of myelin figure

.

Ans. D. Reversible as well as well irreversible cell injury causes mitochondrial swelling (not mitochondrial shrinkage).

.

34. Organ least likely to be affected if blood supply is blocked

A. Intestine

B. Liver

C. Pancreas

D. Kidney

E. Spleen

.

Ans. B

.

  • Liver has dual blood supply (portal vein, and hepatic arteries); therefore liver is least likely affected if one of the blood vessels is blocked.

    .

  • Likewise, lungs have dual blood supply (pulmonary artery, bronchial arteries); and is least affected blockade of one of its blood vessels.

    .

  • If both liver and lungs are present as separate option, choose “liver”.

    .

    .

    .

    35. Cell swelling in hypoxic cell injury is due to

    A. Mitochondria! Dysfunction

    B. Lipofuscin accumulation

    C. Entry of extracellular water

    D. Reactive oxygen radicals

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Ans. C. Failure of Na-K pump results in ↑intracellular Na+ (because this pumps moves Na+ out of the cells); this creates osmotic gradient resulting in influx of water into the cells, thus resulting in swelling of cell as well as cellular organelles.

.

36. Cell swelling in cell injury occurs due to:

A. Accumulation of glycogen

B. Absorption of water from the surrounding’s.

C. Accumulation of proteins.

D. Accumulation of calcium

.

Ans. B

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37. When histological section of an abscess taken, many of the observed neutrophil show a degenerative change in which the nucleus has undergone fragmentation. This process is known as:

A. Caseous necrosis.

B. Karyolysis.

C. Pyknosis.

D. Karyorrhexis.

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Ans. D. PYKNOSIS: Nucleus shrinks. KARYORRHEXIS: Nucleus breaks (fragments) into pieces. KARYOLYSIS: Nuclear pieces break down into building blocks.

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38. Most sensitive cells to hypoxia are:

A. Rbcs

B. Neurons

C. Nephrons

D. Wbcs

E. Platelets

.

Ans. B. The vulnerability of cells to hypoxic injury varies with the tissue or cell type. Hypoxic injury becomes irreversible after:

.

  • 3 – 5minutes for neurons
  • 1 – 2 hours for myocardial cells
  • Many hours for skeletal muscle cells

    .

    12. Which of the following cell types is least sensitive to anoxia:

    A. Neurons

    B. Cardiac myocytes

    C. Small intestinal absorptive cells

    D. Proximal renal tubule cells

    E. Fibroblasts

.

Ans. E

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39. Type of necrosis in brain infarction:

A. Couglative

B. Liquefactive

C. Fat

D. Traumatic

.

Ans. B. Ischemia results in coagulative necrosis. An important exception is brain where ischemia causes liquefactive necrosis; this is because brain contains microglia (miroglia = macrophages of brain) which liquefy the necrotic tissues. The three most important locations of liquefactive necrosis are shown in the table below.

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Sites of liquefactive necrosis

Liquefactive necrosis sites

Cells responsible for liquefaction of necrotic tissues

Brain

Microglia

Abscess

Neutrophils

Pancreas

Pancreatic enzymes (which are activated inside pancreas instead of GIT, resulting in acute pancreatitis)

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40. Liquificative necrosis occurs in

A. Brain

B. Heart

C. Liver

D. Lymph node

.

Ans. A

.

41. Superimposed infection on necrosis is called:

A. Dry gangrene

B. Wet gangrene

C. Coagulative necrosis

.

Ans. B

.

All about gangrene

Definition

Gangrene is coagulative necrosis that resembles mummified tissue.

Most common sites

(1) Lower limbs

(2) Bowels

Cause

Vascular occlusion (ischemia)

Dry gangrene

When characterized primarily by coagulative necrosis without liquefaction, the gangrene is called dry gangrene.

Wet gangrene

When there is superimposed infection of the dead tissues, resulting in liquefactive necrosis, the gangrenous necrosis is called wet gangrene.

Gas gangrene

Bacterial infection causes necrosis and then gangrene with abundant gas formation in the tissues. Causes include, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium septicum

Dry Vs wet gangrene in diabetes

Though wet gangrene also occurs in diabetics, recurrent dry gangrene is comparatively more common.

.

42. Ischemia in Diabetes mellitus commonly results in

A. Dry gangrene

B. Gas gangrene

C. Endarteritis obliterans

D. Wet gangrene

.

Ans. A

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43. Hypoxic death leads to;

A. Coagulative necrosis

B. Liquefactive necrosis

C. Gaseous necrosis

D. Cell death but not necrosis

.

Ans. A. Cutoff of blood supply to an organ (ischemia) causes hypoxia, which results in coagulative necrosis. Recall that brain is an important exception.

.

44. Fat necrosis occurs in:

A. Acute pancreatitis.

B. Heart

C. Liver

D. Kidney

.

Ans. A. FAT NECROSIS: Fat necrosis is of two types: (1) Traumatic fat necrosis (2) Enzymatic fat necrosis

.

Types of fat necrosis

Type of fat necrosis

Cause

Traumatic fat necrosis

Trauma to tissues rich in fats, E.g, breast trauma in car accidents

Enzymatic fat necrosis

Enzymes digest the tissues, E.g, acute pancreatitis

.

45. Enzymatic necrosis affecting the pancreas is called:

A. Coagulative necrosis

B. Liquefactive necrosis

C. Fat necrosis

D. Caseous necrosis

E. Fibrinoid necrosis

.

Ans. C

.

46. Fat necrosis typically occurs in case of

A. Breast trauma

B. After peritonitis

C. MI

D. Ischemic infarcts

.

Ans. A

.

47. Which of the following is associated with fat necrosis

A. Acute pancreatitis

B. Gut gangrene

C. Brain

D. Foreign body reaction

.

Ans. A

.

48. What is inappropriate about fat necrosis:

A. Only caused by trauma to the fat tissue.

B. Occur in acute pancreatitis

C. Traumatic fat necrosis is non enzyme related

.

Ans. A. It is not only caused by trauma to the fat but also caused by enzymes.

.

49. Type of omental necrosis is

A. Gaseous

B. Gangrene

C. Fat

D. Coagulative

E. Fibrinoid

.

Ans. C

.

50. Coagulative necrosis is seen in

A. TB

B. Sarcoidosis

C. Cryptococcal infection

D. Gas Gangrene

.

Ans. A. TB causes caseous necrosis which is a variant of coagulative necrosis.

.

51. Which among the following is not associated with Dry gangrene

A. D.M

B. Throboembolism

C. Bacterial Endocarditis

.

Ans. C

.

52. Coagulative necrosis is typically seen with:

A. Focal bacterial infections

B. Hypoxic death

C. Loss of tissue architecture

.

Ans. B

.

53. Lschemic injury to brain tissue will result in:

A. Coagulative necrosis.

B. Liquefactive necrosis

C. Fat necrosis

D. Gangrenous necrosis

.

Ans. B

.

54. Among following most important initial step in apoptosis is

A. Activation of Bcl-2 Receptors

B. Activation of Caspases

C. Water influx into the cell

D. Water efflux out of the cells

.

Ans. B. CASPASES:Caspases are proteins, which when activated, initiates enzymatic cell death (apoptosis). Upon activation, caspases activate two types of enzymes: Proteases and endonucleases.

.

(1) PROTEASES: Proteases breakdown cytoskeleton of the cell.

.

(2) ENDONUCLEASES: Endonucleases breakdown DNA.

.

Hence, activation of caspases activate proteases and endonucleases which then cause cell death (apoptosis).

.

55. Which of the following is typical of apoptosis:

A. Activation of DNA synthesis in the mitotic cycle

B. Activation of endogenous endonucleases

C. Reduced cytosolic free calcium

D. Karyolysis

E. Inflammation in the tissue

.

Ans. B

.

56. Acidophillic cytoplasm with basophilic granules, structure less material in center, outline is irregular,it is

A. Karyolysis

B. Hydrops degeneration

C. Apoptosis

D. Hydrolysis

.

Ans. C

.

MORPHOLOGY OF APOPTOSIS

.

(1) SHRINKAGE OF CELLS

.

The cytoplasm of the dying cell shrinks. Due to shrinkage of cytoplasm, proteins of cytoplasm becomes concentrated, resulting in acidophilic (eosinophilic, pink) cytoplasm.

.

SHRINKAGE OF CELLS IS THE HALLMARK OF APOPTOSIS.

.

(2) BLEBBING OF PLASMA MEMBRANE

.

Blebbing of plasma membrane results in irregular cell margins.

.

(3) SHRINKAGE AND FRAGMENTATION OF NUCLEUS

.

The nucleus first shrinks (pyknosis) and then breaks down into small pieces (karyorrhexis). These small pieces are scattered in the cytoplasm. As these nuclear pieces are basophilic (purple), it results in basophilic (purple) granules scattered within the acidopilic (blue) cytoplasm.

.

(4) APOPTOTIC BODIES

.

Small pieces break off from the cells which are called apoptotic bodies (membrane bound segments). The apoptotic bodies are phagocytosed and removed by macrophages. An important example of apoptotic bodies is “COUNCILMAN BODIES” in VIRAL HEPATITIS.

.

So, an important difference between necrosis and apoptosis (which are the two mechanism of cell death) is that NECROSIS IS ALWAYS FOLLOWED BY INFLAMMATION WHILE APOPTOSIS IS NEVER FOLLOWED BY INFLAMMATION.

.

57. Which is the sign of apoptosis

A. Karyolysis

B. Karyorrhexis

C. Pyknosis

D. Caseation

.

Ans. B. In apoptosis, the nucleus first condenses (pyknosis) and then fragments (karyorrhexis). Karyorrhexis is the last stage of nucleus during apoptosis.

.

58. Apoptosis is a pathological process associated with

A. Cellular hyperplasia

B. Cellular dysplasia

C. Cellular death

D. Cellular hypertrophy

.

Ans. C. Cell death occurs by two mechanism: (1) Necrosis (2) Apoptosis

.

59. Which one of the following is not true about apoptosis

A. Surrounding inflammation

B. Macrophages take up dead tissue

C. Activation of capsase occurs

D. Endonucleases mediate chromatolysis

.

Ans. A. Necrosis is always followed by inflammation while apoptosis isn’t.

.

60. In a patient there is atrophy ofsubmandibular gland due to its ductobstruction. Atrophy of the gland isbecause of:

A. Apoptosis.

B. Irritation

C. Due to friction

D. Necrosis

.

Ans. A

.

61. Central organ in apoptosis is

A. Mitochondria

B. Nucleus

C. ER

D. Golgi body

.

Ans. A. Mitochondria is involved in initiating the process of apoptosis.

.

(1) INACTIVATION OF BCL2

.

  • BCL2 is a gene which is present in outer mitochondrial matrix, and inhibits apoptosis.
  • Cellular injury, DNA damage, or ↓hormonal stimulation (↓progesterone stimulation of endometrium during menstrual cycle) inactivates BCL2

    .

    (2) LEAKAGE OF CYTOCHROME C

    .

    Incativation of BCL2 results in increased permeability of mitochondrial membrane, resulting in leakage of cytochrome C (present in INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MATRIX) into the cytoplasm.

    .

    (3) ACTIVATION OF CASPASES

    .

    Cytochrome C in the cytoplasm activates caspases; caspases then activate proteases and endonucleases which break down cytoskeleton and DNA respectively, thus finishing the game of the cell

    .

    62. All of the following are features of apoptosis, Except

    A. Cellular swelling

    B. Nuclear compaction

    C. Intact cell membrane

    D. Cytoplasmic eosiophilia

.

Ans. A. In apoptosis, the cell shrinks; shrinkage of cell is the hallmark of apoptosis.

.

63. Caspases are involved in:

A. Cell division

B. Necrosis

C. Apoptosis

D. Inflammation

.

Ans. C

.

64. Most important initial step in apaptosis

A. Activation of bcl-2

B. Activation of caspases

C. Suppression of p53 gene

D. Receptor mediated phagocytosis

.

Ans. B

.

65. Caspases, once activated, lead to which pathological process

A. Apoptosis

B. Calcification

C. Necrosis

D. Cytoskeletal protein degradation

.

Ans. A

.

66. Endogenous pigment include

A. Lipid

B.Hydrogen

C. Carbon

D. Hemosiderin

.

Ans. D. ENDOGENOUS PIGMENTS: These are the pigments which are produced metabolically within the body. EXOGENOUS PIGMENTS: These are the pigments which are introduced into the body from outside by inhalation (carbon, silica), ingestion (beta carotene, silver, lead), or injection (tattooing).

.

Table: Endogenous and exogenous pigments

Endogenous pigments

Melanin

Made from tyrosine by melanocytes within EPIDERMIS

Bilirubin

  • It is produced when hemoglobin breaks down.
  • Deposition results in yellow discoloration called jaundice.
  • Chronic hemolysis (pre-hepatic jaundice), liver diseases (hepatic jaundice), and biliary tract obstruction (post-hepatic jaundice) cause bilirubin deposition; may result in bile stones.

Hemosiderin/ferritin

  • Iron is soluble iron storage protein. Hemosiderin is product of ferritin degradation in lysosomes; it appears as golden-browngranules in tissue or asblue granules when stained with Prussian blue.

    .

  • Normally, iron deposits mostly in the form of ferritin, while a small quantity in the form of hemosiderin. In iron overload (E.g, chronic hemolysis), iron is deposited mostly in the form of hemosiderin. Excess iron deposition is called hemosiderosis. Tissue damage caused by hemosiderosis is called hemochromatosis.

    .

  • PRIMARY STORAGE SITES:Hepatocytes and bone marrow macrophages

    .

  • Chronic hemolysisincreases,while iron deficiency anemia decreases ferritin/hemosiderin deposition.

Lipofuscin

  • It is end product of membrane lipid peroxidation.

    .

  • It commonly accumulates in ELDERLY patients (wear and tear pigment).

Exogenous pigments

Anthracotic pigment

  • Anthracosis (anthrac = coal, carbon) occurs due to inhalation of coal dust (which contains carbon) by coal workers.

    .

  • Alveoli contain carbon-laden macrophages(“dust cells”).

Lead

Lead poisoning can lead to deposition of lead in nuclei of proximal convoluted tubules.

.

67. Yellow brown granules were found in liver cells and kupffer cell of a man with hereditary hemochromatosis. These granules became blue following the Prussian blue reaction. What are these granules:

A. Transferrin

B. Hemosiderin

C. Hemoglobin

D. Bilirubin

E. Biliverdin

.

Ans. B. NOTE: Macrophages of liver are called kupffer cells. Macrophages of brain are called microglia.

.

68. Chronic hemoysis can lead to accumulation of which of the following endogenous pigment in the body

A. Lipofuscin

B.Bilirubin

C.Hemosiderin

D. Ferritin

.

Ans. C. Chronic hemolysis involves breakdown of hemoglobin which yields both bilirubin [option B] and iron [option C]. So, both options are correct. Body can remove bilirubin via feces and kidneys, but it has no means of removing iron. So, option “C” is more appropriate here.

IRON REMOVAL FROM BODY:The excess iron taken with food is stored in cells lining the intestine. This iron is released into the blood when the body needs iron. This is the only way by which body can regulate iron level of the body. The body can not remove excess iron (except for menstruation in females). That’s why iron overload (E.g, caused by chronic hemolysis, multiple transfusions in thalassemia) is treated medically with desferrioxamine (an iron chelator).

.

69. Dystrophic Calcification is seen in all of the following except:

A. Malarial parasite.

B. Dead fetus

C. Hydatid Cyst.

D. Damaged valve

.

Ans. A

.

Table: Types of calcification

Type of calcification

Definition

Examples/Causes

Metastatic calcification

Deposition of calcium in otherwise normal tissues due to hypercalcemia

(1) Hyperparathyroidism

.

(2) Osteolytic tumors with resultant mobilization of calcium and phosphorus

.

(3) Hypervitaminosis D

.

(4) Excess calcium intake, E.g, milk-alkali syndrome (nephrocalcinosis and renal stones caused by milk and antacid self-therapy). Kidney is the most common site of metastatic calcification.

Dystrophic calcification

Calcium deposition in previously damaged tissues; plasma calcium level is typically normal.

(1) Tuberculous lesion

.

(2) Atherosclerotic lesions

.

(3) Acute pancreatitis (saponification)

.

(4) Old trauma

.

(5) Scarred heart valves

.

70. Dystrophic calcification is seen in:

A. Rickets

B. Hyperparathyoidism

C. Atheromatous plaque

D. Vitamin A intoxication

.

Ans. C

.

71. Metastatic Calcification occurs mostly in

A. Kidney

B. Bone

C. Lung

D. Intestine

E. Pancreas

.

Ans. A

.

72. Dystrophic calcification is present in which of the following

A. Acute pancreatitis

B. Malaria

C. Tuberculosis

D. Kidney

.

Ans. C

.

73. Regarding growth

A. Atrophy is decrease in size of cell

B. Hyperplasia is increase in size of cells

C. Hypertrophy is increase in numb, of cells

D. Atrophy is increase in nymb of cells

.

Ans. A

.

74. Pseudocarriers are

A. Carries subclinical infection

B. Carrier of animal infection

C. Carrier of avirulent organism

D. Latent infection

E. Noninfective disease

.

Ans. C

.

75. Vitamin k deficiency is not likely to occur in

A. Biliary fistula

B. Hemolytic anemia

C. Newborn

D. Obstructive jaundice

E. Prolonged use of oral broad spectrum antibiotics

.

Ans. B

.

76. The biological activity of vitamin E has been attributed, in part, to its action as

A. A carrier in electron transport chain

B. A reducing susbtance

C. An anticoagulant

D. An antidote for selenium poisoning

E. An antioxidant

.

Ans. E

.

77. The vitamin having antioxidant action is

A. A

B. C

C. E

D. K

E. Thiamine

.

Ans. C

.

78. The most potent anti-oxidant is

A. Bilirubin

B. Transferrin

C. Vitamin a

D. Vitamin c

E. Vitamin e

.

Ans. E

.

79. Regarding necrosis the incorrect statement is

A. A reversible change

B. Accompanied by hyperaemia

C. Caseation in nature in tuberculosis

D. Followed by liquefaction in brain

E. The result of complete cessation of blood flow

.

Ans. A

.

80. The most common cause of fat necrosis in the peritoneal cavity is

A. Acute pancreatitis

B. Bacteria

C. Intestinal obstruction

D. Trauma

E. Tuberculous peritonitis

.

Ans. A

.

81. Metastatic calcification principally involves

A. Any organ of the body

B. Gastric mucosa

C. Kidneys

D. Lungs

E. Systemic arteries

.

Ans. A

.

82. Hyperplasia

A. Can be pathological

B. Can be physiological

C. Increase in number of cells

D. Increase in organ volume

E. Is reversible

.

Ans. C

.

83. Amongst the causes of fatty changes in liver, the most frequent caeuse in our country is

A. Alcohol

B. Halothane

C. Obesity

D. Starvation

E. Viruses

.

Ans. E

.

84. Metaplasia is characterised by

A. Enlargement of nucleus

B. Morphological and functional changes

C. Morphological change:, only

D. Shrinkage of cell

E. Cloudy swelling

.

Ans. B

.

85. Cellular changes due to ionising radiation is by

A. Changes in cytoplasmic organelles

B. Decrease in chromatin material

C. Disruption of cell membrane

D. Multiplication of nucleus;

E. Producing free radicals

.

Ans. E

.

86. The most important feature of reversible injury is

A. Cellular swelling

B. Condensation of chromatin

C. Glycogen depletion

D. Hydropic degeneration

E. Karyorrhexis

.

Ans. A

.

87. The diagnostic feature of a dead cell is

A. Hydropic degeneration

B. Karyolysis

C. Karyorrhexis

D. Pyknosis of nucleus

E. Shrinkage of cell

.

Ans. B

.

88. A woman is receiving radiotherapy for cervical. Cancer. The cytological examination of cervical smear usually shows:

A. Cytoplasmic vacuolation

B. Inflammatory changes

C. Karyorrhexis and karyolysis

D. Karyorrhexis only

E. Ivo change

.

Ans. C

.

89. Microscopic examination of the endocervical biopsy of a 30 year old female reveled the endocervical tissue lined partially by stratified squamous epithelium. This is due to a process of:

A. Hpv infection

B. Anaplasia

C. Dysplasia

D. Hyperplasia

E. Metaplasia

.

Ans. E

.

90. The commonest type of necrosis is:

A. Gaseous

B. Coagulative

C. Fat necrosis

D. Gangrenous

E. Liquefactive

.

Ans. B

.

91. The most common use of apoptosis is seen in:

A. Ageing

B. Cell death in tumours

C. Cell death in viral diseases

D. Cell death induced by cytotoxic t cells

E. Embryogenesis

.

Ans. E

.

92. The most significant cause of fatty change of liver in industrialized nations is:

A. Alcohol intake

B. Carbon tetrachloride

C. Diabetes

D. Obesity

E. Protein malnutrition

.

Ans. A

.

93. The vitamin with established antioxidant activity is

A. Vitamin a

B. Vitamin b12

C. Vitamin b6

D. Vitamin d

E. Vitamin e

.

Ans. E

.

94. An elderly obese man with severe atherosclerosis developed Acute abdominal pain. On laparatomy the small intestine was Dare purple in colour. The superior mesentry artery ws’-ks Atherosclerotic and thrombosed. Mesenteric vein was patent. Small intestine pathology will be called

A. Dry gangrene

B. G.i.t. Bleeding

C. Red infarction

D. Volvulous formation

E. Wet gangrene

.

Ans. E

.

95. Dystrophic calcification is associated with all of the following Except

A. Acute pancreatitis

B. Extra uterine retained dead foetus

C. Hydatid cyst

D. Malarial parasite

E. Old colloid goitre

.

Ans. D

.

96. With regards to free oxygen radicals, all are true except

A produced by metabolism of carbon tetra chloride

B. Produced by ultraviolet rays

C. Produced by vitamen e deficiency

D. Re4onsible for cell death

E. Responsible for lipid peroxidation

.

Ans. C

.

97. The change which does not occur in an irreversible cell injury Is

A. Appearance of myelin figures

B. Autolysis

C. Karyolysis

D. Karyorrhexis

E. Mitochondrial shrinkage

.

Ans. E

.

98. Reversible ischaemic injury is associated with

A decrease glycolysis

B. Efflux of sodium

C. Increase in ph

D influx of calcium

E. Shrinkage of cells

.

Ans. D

.

99. Cell death due to apoptosis is seen in all of the following Situations except

A. Certain viral diseases

B. Cytotoxic anticancer therapy

C. Embryogenesis

D. Ischaemic necrosis

E physiologically

.

Ans. D

.

100. Apoptosis include the following except

A. Cell swelling

B. Chromatin condensation

C. Increase in nuclear size

D. Karyolysis

E. Rupture of cell membrane

.

Ans. A

.

101. Free radicals are neutralized by

A. Corticosteroids

B interleukins

C. Transferrin

D. Vitamin d

E. Vitamin k

.

Ans. C

.

102. Regarding fat necrosis, all are true except

A. Is a cause of calcium deposits

B. Is caused by lipopolysacharidase

C. Is induced by trauma

D. Is seen in the breast

E. Leads to leakage of fatty acids

.

Ans. B

.

103. The enzymes responsible for suppuration in the abscess are Derived mainly from

A. Lymph

B. Lymphocytes

C. Neutrophils

D. Serum

E. Tissue

.

Ans. C

.

104. Metastatic calcification occurs in

A. Bright’s disease

B. Hodgkin’s disease

C. Leukemias

D. Papillary carcinoma of thyroid

E. Tuberculosis

.

Ans. D

.

105. Causes of atrophy include the following except

A. Excessive endocrine stimulation

B loss of innervation

C occlusion of arterial supply

D. Occlusion of venous drainage

E. Tight clothing

.

Ans. A

.

106. An osmotic diuresis may result from

A. Aldosterone

B. Frusamide

C. Hyperinsulinism

D. Ingestion of alcohol

E. Mannitol

.

Ans. E

.

107. Hypertrophy is characterized by

A. Increase in the number of

B. Increase in the size of cells

C. Increased cell permeability

D. Non adaptive response

E. Uptake of water by the cell

.

Ans. B

.

108. Characteristic feature of infarction

A. Frequently occurs due to pressure

B. In kidney, it is manifested as red infarct

C. In liver, it produces suppuration

D is a usual complication of tuberculosis

E. Usually seen with arterial occlusion

.

Ans. E

.

109. Metastatic cr.lcification usually occurs in

A. Colloid goitr

B. Enzymatic fat necrosis

C. Normal kidney

D old tibroids

E. Tuberculous lesion

.

Ans. C

.

110. The most frequent cause of infarction (ischemic necrosis) in the Viscera is

A. Ai. Embolism

B. Amoebic ulcer

C. Anaemia

D. Atheruma

E. Thrombosis

.

Ans. E

.

111. Amongst the causes of fatty changes in liver, the most Frequent cause in our country is

A. Alcohol

B. Hbv and hcv

C. Halothane

D. Obesity

E. Starvation

.

Ans. B

.

112. Extent of damage to tissue by ionising radiation usually Depends on

A. Age of the patient

B. Dose of radiation with short duration

C. Duration of exposure

D. Type of ionising radiation

E. Type of tissue exposed

.

Ans. C

.

113. Free radicals of ionising radiation have their main effects on

A. “dna” of the cell

B. Cell membrane

C. Golgi apparatus

D. Mitochondria

E. Nucleolus

.

Ans. A

.

114. Pathogenesis of fatty liver includes the following except

A. Decreased fatty acid oxidation

B. Decreased lipoprotein secretions

C. Increased apoprotein synthesis

D. Increased free fatty acids

E increased triglyceride formation

.

Ans. C

.

115. Endogenous antioxidants include the following except

A. Catalase

B. Ceruloplasmin

C. Coagulase

D. Glutathione peroxidase

E. Transferrin

.

Ans. C

.

116. Increased levels of creatinine phosphokinase (cpk) in blood is Seen in the following conditions except

A. Alcoholic myopathy

B. Intra muscular injection

C. Polymycsitis

D. Scleroderma

E. Strenous exercise

.

Ans. A

.

117. The harmful Effects of ionising radiation on the tissues is due To

A. Damage to golgi apparatus

B. Formation of free radicals

C hydropic degeneration

D metaplasia

E swelling of the cells

.

Ans. B

.

118. The most common type of necrosis seen in the omentum is

A. Caseous

B. Coagulative

C. Fat

D. Gangrenous

E. Liquefactive

.

Ans. C

.

119. The most common cause of squamous metaplasia of columnar Epithelium is

A. Chronic irritation

B. Onccgenic viruses

C. Sunrays

D. Ultraviolet rays

E. Vitamin deficiency

.

Ans. A

.

120. The most usual site for dystrophic calcification is

A. Kidney pelvis

B. Kidney tubules

C. Necrotic tissue

D. Pancrease

E. Thyroid gland

.

Ans. C

.

121. Fat necrosis is a characteristic histologic change associated With

A. Caisson disease

B cirrhosis of livr.r.

C. Fatty liver

D. Hyperlipidemia

E traumatic lesion of breast

.

Ans. E

.

122. A male patient develops swelling of the parotid gland. The Radiological examination revealed stone in the duct. The Atrophic change in the gland is best described by the process Of

A. Apoptosis

B. Degeneration

C. Hyalinization

D. Infarction

E. Necrosis

.

Ans. A

.

123. In atrophy of cell

A. Apoptosis may be involved

B. Necrosis occurs

C. Protein synthesis is increased

D. The cell disappears

E. The cell size may decrease

.

Ans. E

.

124. Vasoactive mediators include the following except

A. Anaphylatoxin

B. Histamine

C. Monokines

D. Platelet activating factor

E. Serotonin

.

Ans. C

.

125. Superimposed bacterial infection in ischemia results in

A. Caseation

B. Coagulation necrosis

C. Dry gangrene

D. Gangrenous necrosis

E. Gummatous necrosis

.

Ans. D

.

126. In metaplasia there is change in

A. Character of epithelium

B. Number of cells

C. Shape of nucleus

D. Size of cells

E. Size of nucleus

.

Ans. A

.

127. The endogenous pigmentation is associated with

A. Haemochromatosis but not haemosiderosis

B. Lead poisoning only

C. Ochronosis

D. Pigmentation of endocrine organs only

E. Pigmentation of internal organs only

.

Ans. C

.

128. The enzymes responsible for pyogenic abscess are mainly Derived from

A. Histiocytes

B. Lymphatics

C. Lymphocytes

D. Neutrophils

E. Serum

.

Ans. D

.

129. Which of the followings is the most important event in Irreversible cell injury

A. Damage to cell membranes

B. Loss of co-enzymes

C. Massive ca++ influx

D. Swelling of lysosomes

E. Swelling of mitochondria

.

Ans. C

.

130. The most important event in reversible cellular injury is’

A. Enaoplasmic detachment

B. Mitochondrial rarefaction

C. Nuclear granular disaggregation

D. Plasma membrane blebing

E. Vascular degeneration

.

Ans. C

.

131. Which of the following conditions are included in exogenous Pigmentation

A. Alkaptonuria

B. Argyria

C. Malarial pigment

D. Porphyria

E. Wool sorter’s lung

.

Ans. B. Argyria (silver poisoning) is a permanent blue-gray discoloration of the skin and deep tissues. It can result from using colloidal silver products.

.

132. Pulmonary hemosiderosis is most likely due to

A. Acute glomerulonephritis

B. Asteroid bodies

C. Excessive surfactant

D. Hematemesis

E. Hemoptysis

.

Ans. E

.

133. The autopsy of an elderly patient with chronic hypertensive Disease who died as a result of congestive heart failure shows A hemorrhagic pleural effusion. The right lower lung shows a Wedge-shaped lesion with the base at the lung periphery. The most likely Diagnosis would be.

A. Bleb formation

B. Bronchiolar constriction

C. Bronchogenic carcinoma

D. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

E. Pulmonary infarction.

.

Ans. E

.

134. Enzymatic fat necrosis is characteristic of

A. Acute haemorrhagic pacreatic necrosis

B. Dry gangrene

C. Fat embolism

D. Gas gangrene

E. Tuberculous pertonitis

.

Ans. A

.

135. Hypertrophy

A. Involves endocrine glands

B. Is always pathological

C. Is not reversible

D. Is unlimited

E. Results in increased dna contents

.

Ans. E. Permanent cells (E.g, cardiac myocytes) can not divide. But when they hypertrophy, they’re making their best attempt at it. Their best attempt is to duplicate their dna content (become 4n from 2n), but the cell doesn’t actually divide. So, the nuclei of hypertrophied cells may have a higher dna content because the cells fail to undergo mitosis.

.

Hypertrophy also involves: (1) increased proteins (cytoskeleton) synthesis due to genes activation, and (2) increase in size and number of cellular organelles.

.

136. Metaplasia is characterised by

A. A functional change in cells

B. An increase in the nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio of cells

C. An increase in the number rand size of cells

D. Cloudy swelling of cells

E. Variation in the size and shape of cells

.

Ans. A

.

137. Liquefactive necrosis is seen in

A. Acute appendicitis

B. Acute pancreatitis

C. Ischemia of brain

D. Myocardial infarction

E. Tuberculosis

.

Ans. C

.

138. Dystrophic calcification is not seen in

A. Dead parasites

B. Fat necrosis

C. Malarial parasite

D. Necrotic tissue

E. Old infarcts

.

Ans. C

.

139. Metaplasia is seen in the following except

A. Brain

B. Chronic irritation

C. Gall bladder

D. Lung

E. Vitamin a deficiency

.

Ans. A

.

140. A heavy smoker complained of hoarseness of voice. Laryngoscopic examination revealed small nodule on a vocal Cord. The microscopic examination of the nodule may reveal. All These pathological changes except

A. Atrophy

B. Dysplasia

C. Hyperplasia

D. Keratosis

E. Neoplasia

.

Ans. A

.

141. The endothelial moleculeicam-1 and vcam-1 are responsible For

P. Direct endothelial injury

B. Endothelial cell contraction

C. Junctional retraction

D. Leucocyte adhesion

E. Leucocyto maronalion

.

Ans. D

.

142. The most important opsonin for combating acute infection is

A. Fab portion of igg and c3a

B. Fab portion of igg and c3b

C. L=ab portion of igg and cda

D. Portion igg and c3b

.

Ans. D

.

143. The organ commonly involved by fatty change is

A crain

B. Heart

C. Kidney

D. Liver

E. Skeletal muscle

.

Ans. D

.

144. Haemosiderosis can lead to the following except

A. Brown pigmentation

B cirrhosis

C. Diabetes mellitus

D. Polycythemia

E. Renal damage

.

Ans. D

.

Surgery

145. Iron in systemic overload is deposited in all the organs except;

A. Basal ganglea

B. Cornea

C. Heart

D. Kidney

E. Pancreas

.

Ans. B

.

146. The following are directly related to rapid aging except

A. Caloric restriction

B. Free radical formation

C. Increased cross linkage of collagen

D. None enzymatic combination of glucose with amino acid

E. Random dna mutation

.

Ans. A

.

147. All of the following are examples of hyperplasia, except:

A. Breast at puberty

B. Endornetrial tissue after menstruation

C. Liver regeneration

D. Barrett’s esophagus

.

Ans. D

.

148. Dystrophic calcification can occur in:

A. Dead parasites

B. Necrotic tissue

C. Fat necrosis

D. Myocardial infarction

E. All of above

.

Ans. E

.

149. Metaplasla can occur in all of the following except:

A. Brain

B. Liver

C. Esophagus

D. Endometrium

E. Gut

.

Ans. A

.

150. A heavy smoker presents with hoarseness of voice laryngoscopy reveals a nodule in the Vocal cord. Alt of the following can be present in nodule except:

A. Hypertrophy

B. Hyperplasia

C. Dysplasia

D. Metaplasia

E. Atrophy

.

Ans. E

.

151. In which organ, cells are most susceptible to ischemic necrosis?

A. Heart

B. Brain

C. Intestine

D. Muscle

E. Liver

.

Ans. B

.

152. Iron in the systemic overload will be deposited in all of the following organs except:

A. Heart

B. Kidney

C. Basal ganglia

D. Liver

E. Iris

.

Ans. E

.

153. Type of gangrene mostly in diabetes is

A. Wet gangrene

B. Gas gangrene

C. Dry gangrene

D. Liquifactive necrosis

E. Ryenauds phenomenon

.

Ans. C

.

154. Harmful effect of radiation is due to

A. Damage to golgi

B. Damage to mitochondria

C. Free radical formation

D. Damage to cell memb

.

Ans. C

.

155. In irreversible cell injury which is the feature most unlikely

A. Appearance of myelin

B. Autolysis

C. Karyolysis

D. Karyorhexis

E. Mitochondrial shrinkage

.

Ans. E

.

156. Replacement of dead cells is not a feature of

A. Bone

B. Rena: tubule

C. Heart

.

Ans. C

.

157. In sub arachnoid haemmorhage the drug of choice is

A. Verapamil

B. Nimodipine

C. Nificlipine

D. Carbamazapine

E. Mepridine

.

Ans. B

.

158. In hemorrhagic shock the most likely

A) decrease cardiac output

B) decrease plasma carbon dioxide

C) increase cardiac output

D) increase coronary flow

E) increase use of oxygen

.

Ans. A

.

159. A 2 year old child presents with thin mucoid discharge from anterior border of Sternocleidomastoid muscle in upper third of the neck. The anomaly is related to

A) 1st bronchial cleft

B) 1st bronchial pouch

C) 2nd bronchial cleft

D) 3rd bronchial cleft

E) 4th bronchial pouch

.

Ans. C

.

160. Councilman bodies are formed in the process of:

A. Infection

B. Apoptosis

C. Trauma

D. Necrosis

E. Atrophy

.

Ans. B

.

161. A man is diagnosed as a case of alcoholic hepatitis on basis of liver biopsy that have showed?

A. Fatty changes

B. Mallory bodies

C. Fibrosis

D. Sinusoidal dilatation

.

Ans. B

.

162. On a histopathological examination, a cell has irregular membrane, very little cytoplasm & eosinophilic masses containing chromatin. This change is termad al?

A. Apoptosis

B. Cellular swelling

C. Atrophy

D. Hypertrophy

E. Normal cell cycle

.

Ans. A

.

163. Characteristics of reversible cell injury

A. Decrease glyeolysis

B. Formation of pores in membrane

C. Influx of na+ in cell

D. Efflux of k.

.

Ans. C

.

164. Regarding fat necrosis what is not correct

A. Commonly assolated with acute pancreatitis

B. Foreign body gaint cells are seen

C. It is type of coagulative necrosis

D. Commonly seen in breast tissues

.

Ans. B

.

165. Sign of irreversible injury

A. Influx of

B. Influx of na+

C. Swelling of er

D. Fatty change

.

Ans. A

.

166. Permannant atropy is caused by

A loss of innervation

B. Hormonal of:

C. Immoblization

D. Block of arterial supply

E. Nutritional def:

.

Ans. A

.

167. In parenchymal cells iron is deposited in the form of

A. Tranferrin

B. Ferritin

C. Hearnatin

D. Heamogtobin

E. Lipifuscin

.

Ans. B

.

168. The most common site of fertilization in humans is

A. Ovary

B. Uterus

C. Fallopian tube

D cervix

E. Peritoneal cavity

.

Ans. C

.

169. All are features of irreversible cell injury except

A. Karyolysis

B. Karyorhexis

C. Artolysis

D. Shrinkage of mitochondria

C. Appearance of myelin figure

.

Ans. D

.

170. Major event of irreversible injury is

A. Damage to cell membrane

B. Calcium influx

C. Mitochondria) swelling

D. Calcium efflux

.

Ans. B

.

171. Gas gangrene causes

A. Myonecrosis

B. Toxic shock

C. Septicemia

.

Ans. A

.

172. Gas gangrene death is due to

A. Septicemia

B. Toxemia

C. Bacteremia

D. Hyperglycemia

.

Ans. B

.

173. Atrophy is defined as

A. Decreased numb of cell and tissue

B. Decreased in size of cells

.

Ans. B

.

174. Most appropriate for omentum necrosis

A. Coagulation necrosis

B. Caseous necrosis

C. Fat necrosis

.

Ans. C

.

175. The ecg of a patient shows progressive prolongation f pr interval in successive beats Followed by dropped heart beat. The patient is suffering from.

A. Waits 1 av block

B. Mobits 11 av block

C. Atrial flutter

D. Complete av block

E. 1st degree av block

.

Ans. A

.

176. A patient of diabetes mellitus develops the following limb complications

A. Thrornboangitis obliterians

B. Wet gangcrne

C. Dry gangerne

.

Ans. C

.

177. Iron is stored in parenchyma of organ as:

A. Ferritin

B. Ilaccuatin

C. Naernosiderin

D. Transrertin

C. Biliverdin

.

Ans. A

.

178. Which of the following statement is incorrect about metaplasia?

A. One adult cell type replaces another cell type

B. Irreversible

C. Can occur m lungs

D. Can occur in epithelial cells

E. Protective change occurs due to chronic irrittaion

.

Ans. B

.

179. Amongst the causes of fatty changes in liver, most frequent cause in our country is?

A. Alcohol

B. Hbv e hcv

C. Halothane

D. Obesity

E. Starvation

.

Ans. B

.

180. Gastric emptying is decreased by?

A. Gastrin

B. C<k

C. Secretin

D. Gip

.

Ans. B

.

181. Apoptosis most commonly occur during all of the following except?

A. Embryogenesis

B. Aging

C. Viral hepatitis

D. Ischemia

E. Menstrual cycle

.

Ans. D

.

182. Apoptosis is inhibited by

A. Capsases activation

B. Bcl-2 inhibition

C. Activation of p-53

D. Apoptosis related protein

.

Ans. B

.

183. What is the differentiating point of hypertrophy from hyperplasia

A. Increase in size of cell

B. Increase in size n no of cell

C. Is reversible

D. Is premalignant

E. Involve viscera only

.

Ans. B

.

184. What is the differentiating feature of hyperplasla from benign tumor

A. Increase in no of cell

B. Are the same as parental cell

C. Cytplasrn n nucleus ratio is decreased

.

Ans. A

.

185. A 50 years old woman presented with acute abdomen. At laparoscopy most of the bowel Loops were dark purple black. Her mesenteric veins were patent. The most probable Underlying pathological process is:

A. Coagulative necrosis

B. Dry gangrene

C. Gas gangrene

D. Uquefative necrosis

E. Wet gangrene

.

Ans. E

.

186. Feature not associated with irreversible cell infix y is:

A. Mytein figures appearance, –

B. Karyolysis,

C. Karyorrehxis,

D. Mttochondrial shrinkage

.

Ans. A

.

187. Organ having least chances of infarction:

A. Lungs,

B. Heart,

C. Kidneys,

D. Liver,

E. Spleen

.

Ans. D

.

188. Type of necrosis in brain infarction:

A. Coagulative,

B. Liquefactive,

C. Fat,

D. Traumatic

.

Ans. B

.